怎样做英文科技报告-2

Apr 18, 2009 by     Comments Off on 怎样做英文科技报告-2    Posted under: 寻找方法, 演讲技巧, 英文科技报告

LANGUAGE

当我们准备报告内容的时候,我们习惯性的使用很多正式的词语(formal words),常用一些我们写科技论文的常用句子。这是一个很明显的失误,因为这些句子有点晦涩难懂,拉大了我们和听众之间的距离。

正确的做法:You should think of a presentation in English as a conversation, a little one-sides,but a dialogue nonetheless. Simple words are best.

当老师提出这点的时候,班上的法国人都很难以理解,因为在他们日常生活中总喜欢说很长的句子用很正式的词语,所以这点对以拉丁文(Latin-based)为基础的语言为母语的学生有点难,对我们亚洲人倒是无所谓。

下面左边是一些常用的正式词语,一般在报告中很少使用,都用右边的词语代替,大家自己选择一下,以后记得在报告中尽量使用这些简单用语。

1. additional A. make
2. approximately B. meet
3. assistance C. enough
4. encounter D. get
5. immediately E. need
6. manufacture F. extra
7. obtain G. about
8. purchace H. help
9. require I. now
10. sufficient J. buy

1-F 2-G 3-H 4-B 5-I 6-A 7-D 8-J 9-E 10-C

几点忌讳:(1)当我们有比较大词汇量的时候,总是想着用一些不常用的词语;(2)使用一些行话(Jargon)来显示你的能力

(3)用很长而且负责的句子。(Long, elaborate senteces are a sign of a good speaker?)NO!!!!

Written English vs. Spoken English

Marie-Hélène TOMLINSON 老师是一个英国人,但是一直在法国工作,听了无数的英文报告,很多时候听报告的感觉——表达方式和内容都没有问题,但是就是不习惯,原因就是很多语言是用来读而不是用来听的。

我随手拿起桌子上的一篇文章,写下第一句话:The analysis of more complex flow physics has been required continuously with the development of aerospace industry and it has been also true in the field of computational fluid dynamics. 你会在做报告的时候说这么长的句子么?没有必要,而且说了之后大家听的也费劲,用长句是做英文科技报告中最吃力不讨好的事。简单把上面的句子分成几个短句:The analysis of more complex flow physics has been required. This is beause of the development of aerospace industry. And the field of computational fluid dynamics also need.

大家可以看看下面的几个句子,有没有问题?

1.  ……and then I am going to give some examples of …….

2.  …….secondly, I’d like to talk abouthe issures related to…..

3.  …….finally, I will look at the possible application of ……

当我们说讲座的计划表(schedule)是,将来进行时(the future continuous)常常用到(I will be ….ing / I am going to be …ing),但是我们往往用错,比如说上面1. 的正确的表述应该是:……and then I am going to be giving some examples of …….,你也可以把其它两个句子进行类似改正。当然,你也可以用更为简单的说法:today, I will present……

一个原则:You do not have to use it but it is quite common.所以你可以不说,但是你听到了也不要奇怪哈。

Passive VS. Active

Written English 和 Spoken English的一个重要区别: Spoken English多使用主动语态,而Written English 多使用被动语态。–In active senteces, the subject performs the action. Examples: The technician repairs the machine. –In the passive, the subject is not important or is not know. What counts is the result, the action itself, and not the person who performs the action. Examples: The machine is repaired.

COMPOUNDS

1. COMPOUND NOUNS(复合名词)

A centrally-located fifty-eight floor two hundred and ten metre high glass and concrete office building–这是一个词哦,有点长吧?注意两点:这个复合名字最重要的词语是哪个? 怎么读?(我好像不能给出标准答案,大家自己想吧)

Plurals in compound nouns, 复合名词的复数,这点也很重要,我想下面的这个例子和规则可以帮很大的忙。

A 4 piston engine = an engine with four pistons; Two 4 piston engines = two engines with four pistions;规则:Only the last noun in a compound noun can be in the pural form.

2. COMPOUND ADJECTIVES(复合形容词)

A compound adjective is a group of words that qualifies a noun. 常见的有两种形式:

—ING form in compound adjectives: active form. The noun that is qualified produces an effect. For exmaple, a sound-absoring device: a device which absords the sound.

—ED in compound adjectives: passive form. The noun that is qualified is submitted to an action. For exmaple, A hand-operted tool: a tool that is operated by hand.

解释起来还比较麻烦,最好的办法就是记住两个例子,估计大部的问题都能解决,实在不行就只能再查查资料了。

这是《怎样做英文科技报告》第二部分,还剩下第三部分近期总结完,主要内容将会包括:常用的书面语的代替表达;Signposting的活用;(先简单说明一下:大家知道道路上有各种标志,简单的一个词语就足以让我们怎么走,这和我们口语表达的实质是相同的——使用简单用语);Visual AIDS and boundy language(辅助工具和肢体语言);TIPS FOR POWERPOINT PRESENTATIONS.

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